The success of partnership is contingent to certain conditions. The Trade Union Congress (TUC) and the Involvement and Participation Association (IPA) (cited in Lucio and Stuart 2002: 308) propose several partnership principles to be implemented:

– commitment to business success and employment security

– recognising legitimate interests

– focus on the quality of working life (including flexible job design and training)

– transparency and added value

Therefore, management have to adopt a pluralist view that involves unions in decision making (Kochan and Osterman 1994: 46), all parties seek mutual gain approach (Lucio and Stuart 2002: 308), unions move away from adversarial approach and improve their bargaining powers through gaining support from member participation and solidarity (Heery 2002; Oxenbridge and Brown 2002).

However, the absence of state support and fierce business competition may inhibit partnership (Turnbull, Blyton and Harvey 2004: 304).


Framework for Implementing Succesfull Workplace Partnership

Source: Satrya, A. and B. Parasuraman. 2007. ‘Partnership as Union Strategy – Does It Work in Asia? Case Studies in Indonesia and Malaysia.’ Indian Journal of Industrial Relations (India), vol. 42, no. 4 (April): 589-616.



  • Heery, E. 2002. ‘Partnership Versus Organising: Alternative Futures for British Trade Unionism.’ Industrial Relations Journal 33(1): 20-35.
  • Kochan, T.A. and P. Osterman. 1994. The Mutual Gains Enterprise : Forging a Winning Partnership among Labor, Management, and Government. Boston, Mass. :: Harvard Business School Press
  • Lucio, M.M. and M. Stuart. 2002. ‘Assessing the Principles of Partnership: Workplace Trade Union Representatives’ Attitudes and Experiences.’ Employee Relations 24(3): 305-320.
  • Oxenbridge, S. and W. Brown. 2002. ‘The Two Faces of Partnership? An Assessment of Partnership and Co-Operative Employer/Trade Union Relationships.’ Employee Relations 24(3): 262-276.
  • Turnbull, P., P. Blyton and G. Harvey. 2004. ‘Cleared for Take-Off? Management-Labour Partnership in the European Civil Aviation Industry.’

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